She also appears, briefly, as one of the kidnapped scientists and philosophers in the Doctor Who episode Time and the Rani. American astronomer Carl Sagan , in Cosmos: A Personal Voyage , discussed Hypatia and gave a detailed speculative description of her death, linking it with the destruction of the Library of Alexandria , and declaring her, without corroboration, its last librarian.
She has been claimed by second wave feminism , most prominently as Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy , published since by Indiana University Press. Judy Chicago 's large-scale The Dinner Party awards her a place-setting, and other artistic works draw on or are based on Hypatia. The last two centuries have seen Hypatia's name honored in the sciences, especially astronomy. The lunar crater Hypatia was named after the philosopher, in addition to craters named for her father Theon and for Cyril. By the end of the twentieth century Hypatia's name was applied to projects ranging in scope from an Adobe typeface Hypatia Sans Pro , [ 44 ] to a cooperative community house in Madison, Wisconsin.
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A genus of moth also bears her name. Her life continues to be fictionalised by authors in many countries and languages. More factually, Hypatia of Alexandria: Mathematician and Martyr is a brief page biography by Michael Deakin, with a focus on her mathematical research. The Fathers of Ignorance and destructive evil. The rest, whom We adjudge demented and insane, shall sustain the infamy of heretical dogmas, their meeting places shall not receive the name of churches, and they shall be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by the retribution of Our own initiative" CTh.
Emperor Theodosius. The Greatest Criminals and mass murders of Civilization. Theophilus of Alexandria, died was Patriarch of Alexandria , Egypt from to He is regarded as a saint by the Coptic Orthodox Church. He was a Coptic Pope at a time of conflict between the newly dominant Christians and the pagan establishment in Alexandria , each supported by a segment of the Alexandrian populace. In , Theophilus according to Rufinus and Sozomen discovered a hidden pagan temple. He and his followers mockingly displayed the pagan artifacts to the public which offended the pagans enough to provoke an attack on the Christians.
The Christian faction counter-attacked, forcing the pagans to retreat to the Serapeum. A letter was sent by the emperor that Theophilus should grant the offending pagans pardon, but destroy the temple; according to Socrates Scholasticus , a contemporary of his, the latter aspect the destruction of the temple was added as a result of heavy solicitation for it by Theophilus. The destruction of the Serapeum was seen by many ancient and modern authors as representative of the triumph of Christianity over other religions.
When the philosopher Hypatia was lynched by an Alexandrian mob, they acclaimed Theophilus's nephew and successor Cyril as "the new Theophilus, for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city". Theophilus turned on the followers of Origen after having supported them for a time. He was accompanied by his nephew Cyril to Constantinople in and there presided at the " Synod of the Oak " that deposed John Chrysostom.
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Cyril of Alexandria c. He came to power when the city was at its height of influence and power within the Roman Empire.
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Cyril wrote extensively and was a leading protagonist in the Christological controversies of the later 4th and 5th centuries. He was a central figure in the First Council of Ephesus in , which led to the deposition of Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople. Cyril is counted among the Church Fathers and the Doctors of the Church , and his reputation within the Christian world has resulted in his titles Pillar of Faith and Seal of all the Fathers , but Theodosius II , the Roman Emperor , condemned him for behaving like a proud pharaoh , and the Nestorian bishops at the Council of Ephesus declared him a heretic, labelling him as a "monster, born and educated for the destruction of the church".
Cyril is controversial because of his involvement in the expulsion of Novatians and Jews from Alexandria and the murder of the pagan philosopher Hypatia.
Historians disagree over the extent of his responsibility for these events. The Roman Catholic Church did not commemorate Saint Cyril in the Tridentine Calendar : it added his feast only in , assigning to it the date of 9 February, the date on which it is still observed by those who use calendars later than but prior to the revision, which assigned to it the date of 27 June, considered to be the day of the saint's death, as celebrated by the Coptic Church. For the first part of his rule, Theodosius seems to have ignored the semi-official standing of the Christian bishops; in fact he had voiced his support for the preservation of temples or pagan statues as useful public buildings.
In his early reign, Theodosius was fairly tolerant of the pagans, for he needed the support of the influential pagan ruling class. However he would in time stamp out the last vestiges of paganism with great severity. In he prohibited haruspicy on pain of death , and unlike earlier anti-pagan prohibitions, he made non-enforcement of the law, by Magistrates, into a crime itself. In he sent a prefect to Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor with the aim of breaking up pagan associations and the destruction of their temples. The Serapeum at Alexandria was destroyed during this campaign.
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In , he reiterated the ban of blood sacrifice and decreed "no one is to go to the sanctuaries, walk through the temples, or raise his eyes to statues created by the labor of man" [ 14 ] decree " Nemo se hostiis polluat ", Codex Theodosianus xvi. The temples that were thus closed could be declared "abandoned", as Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria immediately noted in applying for permission to demolish a site and cover it with a Christian church, an act that must have received general sanction, for mithraea forming crypts of churches, and temples forming the foundations of 5th century churches appear throughout the former Roman Empire.
Theodosius participated in actions by Christians against major Pagan sites: the destruction of the gigantic Serapeum of Alexandria by soldiers and local Christian citizens in , according to the Christian sources authorized by Theodosius extirpium malum , needs to be seen against a complicated background of less spectacular violence in the city: Eusebius mentions street-fighting in Alexandria between Christians and non-Christians as early as , and non-Christians had participated in the struggles for and against Athanasius in and By decree in , Theodosius ended the subsidies that had still trickled to some remnants of Greco-Roman civic Paganism too.
Taking the auspices and practicing witchcraft were to be punished. After the last Olympic Games in , it is believed that Theodosius cancelled the games although there is no proof of that in the official records of the Roman Empire, and the reckoning of dates by Olympiads soon came to an end. Now Theodosius portrayed himself on his coins holding the labarum. The earliest known surviving source of information on the founding of the Library of Alexandria is the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas , composed between c.
The Letter of Aristeas claims that the Library was founded during. Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece , from which the word Hellenistic was derived.
At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe , North Africa and Western Asia , experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, literature, architecture, mathematics and science, it is considered a period of transition , sometimes of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy , Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek science was advanced by the works of the polymath Archimedes ; the religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis , eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.
After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Achaemenid Empire in BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia, north-east Africa and South Asia. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa; this resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, spanning as far as modern-day India. However, these new kingdoms were influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient.
Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East , Middle East , Southwest Asia ; this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek , which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to; the Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in BC following the Achean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in AD.
Although words related in form or meaning, e. Hellenist , have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the midth century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus, coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Following Droysen and related terms, e. Hellenism, have been used in various contexts; the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies.
Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others; the term Hellenistic implies that the Greek populations were of majority in the areas in which they settled, but in many cases, the Greek settlers were the minority among the native populations.
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The Greek population and the native population did not always mix. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death; the works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia , Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis , a statesman of the Achaean League until BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage, his Histories grew to a length of forty books, covering the years to BC.
The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus. Another important source, Plutarch's Parallel Lives although more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures.
Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms.
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Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus , Pausanias and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe.
Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged.
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Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I , Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Under the reign of Heraclius , the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin.
Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity ; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I , the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria , to the Arab caliphate.
During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance , which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade , when Constantinople was sacked in and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in , the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century.